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    Immune evasive Stem Cells

    Allogenic equine MSCs have been reported to be immune evasive, since they did not induce a cellular immune response in vitro (Piggot et al., 2013; Paterson et al., 2014).
    Additionally, Ardanaz et al. (2016) found that intra-articular injections of allogeneic equine MSCs could be safely administered repeatedly in vivo. However, controversy has arisen, since these studies used MSCs derived from bone marrow, which have been demonstrated to be heterogeneous in MHC II expression and when administered to a MHC mismatched recipient horse capable of eliciting a cellular a humoral immune response (Schnabel et al., 2014; Berglund et al., 2016).

    Peripheral blood-derived MSCs however demonstrate no MHC II expression and very low MHC I levels. This ameliorates their immune evasive properties, since Peripheral blood-derived MSCs can be administered repeatedly without eliciting a cellular immune response. Additionally, intra-articular administration of peripheral blood-derived MSCs has been demonstrated to be as safe as a saline injection.

    Allogeneic and autologous MSCs
    Allogeneic and autologous MSCs